Phenology, Climate Change, and Citizen Science


Changes in phenological events and phenophase length are among the most sensitive biological responses to climate change. Across the world, many spring events are occurring earlier—and fall events are happening later—than they did in the past. However, not all regions and species are changing in the same direction or at the same rate. These differences in timing are starting to lead to mismatches in phenological timing, like pollinators emerging before the plant they need to pollinate have bloomed. These mismatches and changes could have a significant effect on ecosystems and landscapes over time, so predicting and quantifying these changes is very important, particularly as climate change accelerates.

A Laboratory Manual for Biology 308: Laboratory/Field Exercises in Ecology and Evolution